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Confucian Temple

 China has a long history of holding commemorative ceremonies to memory the great ideologist and educator Confucius, who is the founder of the Confucianism. At the very beginning, the ceremonies were held as a family custom by Confucius' posterity. Gradually, that got public and became state-level during the years (202 B.C. --- 195 B.C.) of Emperor Gaozu of Han Dynasty. Moreover, Confucius was titled Oracle Wenxuan by Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty in 793 A.D. After that, the ceremonies kept being upgraded and even became an imperial scale in Ming Dynasty. Therefore, for thousands of years, thousands of Confucius temples were built around the country.
    Known as “Wenmiao” in Chinese, Confucius Temple was established in 1439 in honor of Confucius. It is the largest and best-preserved temple dedicated to Confucius in Gansu. The symmetrically aligned historic buildings together with the collections of stone steles and scriptures means that Confucian Temple possesses a very important position in the cultural heritage of the Chinese nation as a whole.
    To commemorate Confucius' 2556 birthday in 2005, the Wuwei government and people well arranged the "Dance of Remembering Confucius and Confucian Classical Six Arts" ,which re-presented the grand ceremony of worshiping Confucius during the years of Emperor Qianlong in Qing Dynasty. On September 28 of that year, this wonderful performance was showed and broadcast live to the world by CCTV (China Central Television). In a short time, all the Chinese at home and abroad paid their great attention to the Confucian Temples of Wuwei; meanwhile, this Temple complex began to enjoy its reputation all over the world owing to the live broadcast.  The Tiantishan Grottoes are situated on the Huangyang River, about 60 km south of Wuwei (originally Liangzhou) and Twere excavated during the Northern Liang dynasty (397–439 CE).
    On the basis of the style, content, and inscriptions on the wall paintings and landforms, archaeologists believe that the Tiantishan grottoes may be the Liangzhou grottoes mentioned in historical documents, such as the Fa Yuan Zhu Lin. According to historical records, the Liangzhou grottoes were ranked with the Yungang and Longmen grottoes as the three major cave temple sites to have exerted profound influence on the development of Chinese painting and sculpture.
    If the Tiantishan and Liangzhou grottoes are actually one and the same, research and protection of this site becomes even more meaningful and important. Because of the construction of the Huangyang River reservoir in 1960, the Gansu People’s Government approved moving the wall paintings and polychrome statues of the grottoes, with the exception of seven cli? statues, to the Gansu Provincial Museum for preservation. In conjunction with the restoration and conservation of the Tiantishan relics, the authors collected and analyzed ninety-six samples from the Northern Liang, Northern Wei, Tang, and Ming dynasties and performed comprehensive analyses of their pigments 
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